The median scores of white Catholics (0.72) and white mainline Protestants (0.69) — groups that are more culturally dominant in the Northeast and the Midwest — are not far behind. A.) , Evidence from the General Social Survey indicates that higher fertility and earlier childbearing among women from conservative denominations explains 76% of the observed trend: conservative denominations have grown their own.  It was, according to historian Jason Lantzer, "the emerging evangelical movement that would help forge the Seven Sisters and which provides a core to the wide variety of theological and doctrinal differences, shaping them into a more coherent whole. What is also striking is that mainline Protestants, despite their more liberal leanings, are also tepid in their feelings about same sex marriage. , The Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy of the 1920s widened the division between evangelical and non-evangelical Protestants as the two sides fought for control over the mainline denominations. By Ryan Burge and Paul Djupe […], […] 78% say their campus welcomes transgender people). De même, le nombre de catholiques a lentement diminué, alors que le nombre de protestants historiques « Mainline », lui, s’est véritablement […], […] evangelicals perceive quite a bit less among their friends.  The number of mainline congregations in the U. S. declined from more than 80,000 churches in the 1950s to about 72,000 in 2008. Olson and Perl conclude, on the one hand, that there is a good deal of religion-based homophily. Richard Hutcheson, Jr., chairman of the Office of Review and Evaluation of the Presbyterian Church in the United States, observed that clergy candidates were more likely to be rejected due to "excessive narrowness" than for violating confessional standards.. The history of doing so is motivated from splits in Protestant denominations […], […] to evangelicals, but can be seen across the board, though those already supportive in 2007 (e.g., Mainline Protestants) showed less movement. Says David Roozen, Director of Hartford Seminary's Hartford Institute for Religion Research, "Location, Location, Location used to be the kind way that researchers described the extent to which the growth or decline of American congregations was captive to the demographic changes going on in their immediate neighborhoods. manipulation. Nov. 2006. Much of the belief in the essential religious homogeneity of Central Indiana rests on two assumptions:that the area is especially religious,and that in its religious expression,it overwhelmingly subscribes to mainline Protestant denominations. […] followed by those in the Presbyterian Church (USA). Islam predominates in Central Asia and SW Asia/North Africa; however, most of the world’s Muslims live in . ", The Great Awakening ignited controversy within Protestant churches between Old Lights and New Lights (or Old Side and New Side among Presbyterians). After years of debate, United Methodist Church leaders voted this week to reaffirm the denomination’s opposition to same-sex marriages and openly gay clergy. Eventually, that group of students is confirmed membership into the church body. He can be contacted via Twitter or his personal website.  This may contribute to decline and may be influenced in part by the United Methodist Church practice of Itinerancy, where clergy are intentionally moved from one church to another as often as yearly in an effort to support and encourage the United Methodist tradition of strong lay ministry. The mainline Protestant churches are a group of Protestant denominations in the United States that contrast in history and practice with evangelical, fundamentalist, and charismatic Protestant denominations. (3) Of course, this data includes numbers from counties outside Appalachia. One would assume that the theological liberalism of mainliners would also translate into this group being more likely to support Democrats. A. Hodge, B. ... Give Region of Predominance(4) •The Armenian Church- Lebanon, Armenia, NE Turkey and W Azerbaijan  The American Baptist Churches USA does not perform same-gender marriages, but allows each congregation the freedom to decide for itself. It is clear that evangelical […], […] worth pointing out is that of the oldest five religious traditions, four of them are from the mainline flavor of Protestant Christianity (ECUSA, UMC, PCUSA, and ELCA). This description moves into sharper focus when considering how evangelicals and mainline Protestants view social issues in the graph below. Pastors and Public Life: The Changing Face of American Protestant Clergy. ", While no longer exclusively Christian, the Unitarian Universalist Association, with 211,000 adherents, considers itself to be mainline.. – Religion in Public. Mormon. List the 4 largest denominations. In the American religious landscape it is the prototypical mainline church – filled with middle and upper-middle class, mostly white congregants who are moderate on social […], […] 昨年はまた、主流派のクリスチャンの数がわずかに増加した。これは、２０年近くで初めての増加だ。 […], […] year also brought a small uptick in the number of people who identify as mainline Protestants—their first increase in nearly 20 […], […] Non-white evangelicals, white mainline Protestants, and white Catholics. , The term "mainline" once implied a certain numerical majority or dominant presence in mainstream society, but that is no longer the case. A theologically liberal stance generally lines up with a more accommodating stance toward modernity, a stron-ger emphasis on social justice, and a greater tolerance for a wider range of religious beliefs. Findlay, James F. 1993. In 2003, 36 percent of white mainline Protestants supported gay marriage, compared with 62 percent in 2014, Cox said. Pastors on average remain with a congregation for four years compared to twice that length for non-mainline church leaders. Polls in recent years indicate that about one-quarter of U.S. adults identify as evangelical, and less than 15% as mainline Protestant. Djupe, Paul A. and Christopher P. Gilbert.  In 2015, the Mennonite Church Canada saw its first same-gender marriage in one of its congregations. In the 1990s four of the US Supreme Court Justices were Mainline Protestants: Sandra Day O'Connor, John Paul Stevens, William Rehnquist and David Souter. Evangelicals place a great deal of emphasis on having a “born-again” experience. , Most of the above denominations also ordain openly transgender clergy. Sharing a common Reformation heritage with Episcopal and Congregational churches, these denominations together created the mainline. While there is not a tremendous amount of difference between the two groups in terms of partisanship, a significant gulf opens up when looking at abortion and gay marriage in 2016. Fourteen percent of evangelical congregations are between 18 and 29 (compared to 2 percent), 36 percent between 30 and 49, 28 percent between 50 and 64, and 23 percent 65 or older. As the practice of historical criticism spread to the United States, conflict over biblical inspiration erupted within Protestant churches. That dipped to about 21% in 2014, according to Pew. chapter 1 The Importance of Religion, and the Role of Individual Diff erences 18 | Public Opinion across the World Work by Landon Schnabel and Sean Bock finds that the share of the population that is intensely religious (meaning frequent church attendance, prayer, and a literal view of the Bible) has not declined, while many moderate individuals have stopped identifying with religion entirely. The average age of a mainline pastor in 1998 was 48 and increased to 55 by 2009. ( Log Out / Conservative Protestants led by A. Overall, it is higher than that of evangelicals: While the term "mainline" was not applied to churches until the 20th century, mainline churches trace their history to the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century. , Older, more establishment Protestant denominations, Contrast with other Protestant denominations. This increase has been driven higher by a rise in the number of divorced and widowed adherents. Web: sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFHacker1957 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBaltzell1964 (, Struckmeyer, Kurt. - The United Methodist Church", "Mennonites Approve Dual Policy on Abortion", "Where Christian churches, other religions stand on gay marriage", "Same Sex Blessings/Homosexuality - Anglican Church of Canada", "Evangelical Lutherans back same-sex marriage", "First MC Canada-officiated same-sex marriage", "Gay marriage: mainline denominations affirm SCOTUS", "Another conference to license gay pastor", "Moravian Church Northern Province Synod approves ordination of gay and lesbian pastors « Northern Province Synod 2014 « Moravian Church of North America", "33 Ordained, Commissioned in "Historic" Service", "Western Jurisdiction elects openly gay United Methodist bishop - The United Methodist Church", "Goshen church votes Sunday to allow same-sex marriages", "Religious groups' policies on transgender members vary widely", "Hillary Clinton to Address AME Church Conference in Philadelphia", "MYTHS AND FACTS ABOUT EVANGELISM AND CHURCH GROWTH", "Facts on Growth: 2010: If Congregations Can Change, They Can Grow", "United Methodist Church Continues to Decline in America, but Gains in Africa", "Mixed blessings in new U.S. church numbers", "THE EPISCOPALIANS: AN AMERICAN ELITE WITH ROOTS GOING BACK TO JAMESTOWN", "The Demographic Imperative in Religious Change in the United States", The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mainline_Protestant&oldid=993409483, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, With 6.7 million members in the United States in 2018, the, The second largest mainline denomination is the, The fourth largest mainline denomination is the, Congregational Christian Churches, (not part of any national CCC body). Amid their “slow but general retreat” this decade in terms of financial health and membership, the oldline Protestant churches are especially hampered by the aging of their memberships, a new study says.Pastors of some six out of ten mainline Protestant churches last year said that a quarter or more of their members were 65 or older. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. For instance, in the mid 1970’s, 3 in 10 Americans identified as mainline. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. They believe that each individual needs to make an affirmative and spontaneous commitment to follow Jesus Christ and come forward during the invitational portion of a church service to make that commitment known. Walz, Jeffrey S., and Steven R. Montreal. One of the questions that we often get asked when we post analysis of Protestant Christianity is: what is a mainline Protestant?  The Second Great Awakening was a catalyst for the reform of society. Twenty-eight percent said the Bible was not the Word of God but was of human origin.. However, they are disappearing at a rapid rate. Indeed, one of the conventional stories about the mainline is that they became generals without armies, with denominational elites taking political stances on civil rights and against the Vietnam War that were far too liberal for the membership. New York: Simon and Schuster.  Episcopalians and Presbyterians also tend to be considerably wealthier and better educated than most other religious groups, and they were disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of US business and law until the 1950s.. Mainline Protestantism is characterized by theological and ideological pluralism. 2002. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Mainline Protestantism is ground zero for this phenomenon. Almost all mainline denominations are gender-inclusive and ordain women. While no particular candidate can be endorsed, mainline churches often invite political speakers. From 1958 to 2008, mainline church membership dropped by more than one-quarter to roughly 20 million people—15 percent of all American adults. 1. Conversely, in northern Europe, where historically mainline Protestant faiths like Lutheranism have dominated, many residents do not regularly attend church services or ﬁ nd religion to be very important (Manchin 2004). , From 1965 to 1988, mainline church membership declined from 31 million to 25 million, then fell to 21 million in 2005. New York: Cambridge University Press. countries outside these regions. secularization); and conversions from non-Protestant sources. Further information about his work can be found at his website and on Twitter. On the other hand, many mainline churches use a confirmation process, whereby every young person in the church who is of a certain age goes through a series of informational classes and then decides whether they want to join the church.  In Mexico, the Anglican Church is historically tied to and formed from the US Episcopal Church. The End of White Christian America. Partisanship was strongly “bimodal” (two peaks) in the 1970s and has since steadily flattened out. Pentecostal: At only around 100 years old, Pentecostalism is a relatively young denomination and includes Assemblies of God and Vineyard churches. Lutheran. ", sfn error: no target: CITEREFPew_Research_Center2015 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBalmer2002 (, Irving Lewis Allen, "WASP—From Sociological Concept to Epithet,", Protestant denominations in the United States, debates between modernists and fundamentalists in the 1920s, International Council of Community Churches, National Association of Congregational Christian Churches, Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches, Latvian Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church Abroad, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in Canada, Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice, History of Protestantism in the United States, wealthiest and most affluent American families, "Survey Tracks Trends in Evangelical, Oldline Congregations", "Revisioning the Future of Oldline Protestantism", "Mainline Churches: Past, Present, Future", "Pew Research Center 2014 Religious Landscape Survey", "Why has Pentecostalism grown so dramatically in Latin America? New York: Oxford University Press. notes of the Gloria Patri. Wuthnow, Robert, and John H. Evans, ed. Mainline Protestant.  Hence in Christological and doctrinal reference mainstream Christianity is often equivalent to Trinitarianism. The term mainstream Christian in academic usage is not equivalent to mainline Protestant and is often used as an attempt to find impartial sociological vocabulary in distinguishing orthodoxy and heresy. These terms are also increasingly used in other countries for the same purpose of distinguishing between the so-called oldline and neo-Protestants.  A Pew Forum statistic revealed the same share in 2014.  In their analysis, by far the main cause is birth rates—low for the mainline bodies, and high for the conservatives. “Mainline Protestantism and Deliberation about Homosexuality.” In Religion, Sexuality, and Politics in Canada and the United States, Clyde Wilcox and David Rayside.  compared with the nationwide average of 50%. However, they are broadly suggestive of the predominance of mainline Christianity in the region. , Through the 1940s and 1950s, neo-orthodoxy had become the prevailing theological approach within the mainline churches. The mainline (also sometimes called mainstream) or mainline Protestant denominations are those Protestant denominations that comprised the vast majority of American Protestantism in the 1700s, 1800s, and early 1900s. St. Louis: Concordia. The mainline Protestant churches (also called mainstream Protestant and sometimes oldline Protestant) are a group of Protestant denominations in the United States that contrast in history and practice with evangelical, fundamentalist, and charismatic Protestant denominations.  Marsden argues that in the 1950s, "Mainline Protestant leaders were part of the liberal-moderate cultural mainstream, and their leading spokespersons were respected participants in the national conversation. Efforts to improve the rights of women, reforming prisons, establishing free public schools, prohibiting alcohol, and (in the North) abolishing slavery were promoted by mainline churches. The downward trend seen above has been linked to the political activism of the mainline.  Some congregations of the Church of the Brethren have also voted to perform same-gender marriages although the national denomination opposes this practice. In fact, they were the largest religious group in the United States. Through the mid-20th century, most Protestants in the U.S. belonged to mainline churches, but now they are outnumbered by evangelicals. The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC), Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS), the Christian and Missionary Alliance (C&MA), the Churches of Christ and Christian churches, the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA), the North American Lutheran Church (NALC), and the Anglican Church in North America (ACNA) are often considered too conservative for this category and thus grouped as evangelical. Smidt, Corwin. In other historical Protestant strongholds such as Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Latvia, Estonia and Hungary, it remains one of the most popular religions. Atheists clock in at the third position, and agnostics are ranked fifth in mean political […], […] By Ryan P. Burge and Paul A. Djupe @ Religion in Public […], […] another 14% neither agreeing or disagreeing. Berkeley: University of California Press. This gap has caused feelings of alienation among conservative mainline Protestants. [page needed].  Mainline denominations are historically Trinitarian and proclaim Jesus Christ as Lord and Son of God. This speaks to a larger trend occurring in American religion: moderates are disappearing. While just 5% of respondents in 1972 said they had no faith, today it’s closer to 22%. The primary reason is that the “Southern Strategy” of the Republican Party was still ongoing and Southern Baptists had not yet experienced the Conservative Takeover of the early 1980s which moved the denomination to the right (both theologically and politically). The political effects could be huge", "African Methodist Episcopal Church — World Council of Churches", "African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church — World Council of Churches", "Christian Methodist Episcopal Church – World Council of Churches", "Unitarian Universalist Affirmation of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender People | UUA.org", Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life 2008b, "Coalition Members | Religious Coalition For Reproductive Choice", "What is the United Methodist position on abortion? These statistics reflect in part the numbers from 1916 and 1926.  Mainline Christian groups are often more accepting of other beliefs and faiths, affirm the ordination of women, and have become increasingly affirming of gay ordination. Protestantism were members of mainline denominations.  Also considered mainline, the Anglican Church of Canada, Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, and United Church of Canada bless or marry same-gender couples. Demographic trends for evangelical and historically African-American churches have been more stable. Unless there is a surge of new members, rising death rates are predicted to diminish their ranks even further in the years ahead.. The fundamentalists lost these battles for control to the modernists or liberals. In the 1970’s, mainline Protestants were noticeably more Republican than evangelical Christians. The Political Influence of Churches. ", Some mainline Protestant denominations have the highest proportion of graduate and post-graduate degrees of any other denomination in the United States. Baptist, Methodist, Pentecostal and Lutheran. Mainline denomination members have the lowest birthrate among American Christian groups. 21% reported an income of $100,000 per year or more, compared to only 13 percent of evangelicals. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. In Washington But Not Of It: The Prophetic Politics of Religious Lobbyists. Which churches are considered 'mainline denominations,' and why? There’s considerable diversity among mainliners and Catholics. Mainline churches hold a range of theological orientations—conservative, moderate and liberal.  The term was apparently coined by William Hutchison. Roman Catholic, Evangelist, Mainline Protestants, Historically black churches, and Latter Day Saints 10. 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